Publications

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Designing Emergency Relief Systems for Runaway Reactions

Do you suffer from the ERS design ostrich syndrome? Most companies are well-equipped to perform emergency relief system (ERS) design for single-phase flow and non-reactive systems. Existing standards and recommended engineering practices developed by organizations such as the ASME, NFPA, API, and AIChE's CCPS enable a competent engineer with proper training to perform such calculations with a high degree of confidence and accuracy. Relative systems, however, are more complex, and may be susceptible to fire-induced and process-induced runaway reactions. This paper provides guidance that applies to reactive systems subject to process- and fire-induced runaway reactions, tanks that store reactive materials, and two-phase flow of reactive materials. Read more

DHA or PHA: Using RAGAGEP to Identify Hazards in Combustible Dust Operations

Dust Hazard Analysis (DHA) requirements are similar to Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) requirements. DHAs must evaluate the fire, deflagration and explosion hazards and recommend protections. DHAs must also be performed or led by a qualified person. DHAs also must be documented and the action items requiring changes must be included in the study. The accuracy of the DHA analysis is dependent upon knowing the accurate particle size, moisture content, and chemical composition. Changes in any of those parameters means a material can go from being defined as explosible to non-explosible very quickly. This presentation reviews the compliance requirements of NFPA 652, as well as OSHA, and illustrates ioKinetic's Recognized And Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices (RAGAGEP) approach to dust hazard assessments. Read more

Experimental Study of Organic Peroxide Hazards

A presentation delivered to DIERS user group on October 21, 1998 and updated October 10, 2002. Read more

Improve the Design of Fire Emergency Relief Systems

In recognition of the potential severe consequences of a process vessel rupture under fire exposure, industry codes such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 30 and the American Petroleum Institute (API) Standard 2000 have been established for the specification of emergency relief systems (ERS). The intent is to reduce the risk of human injury and asset losses associated with process plant fires. These codes are largely prescriptive in nature. That is, they provide specific details on how to achieve safe design. Prescriptive standards are easy to apply, because they are simplified approaches which generally apply to many (but not all) situations. But they also have limitations, including the tendency to result in, at best, suboptimal (overly conservative) designs, and in some instances potentially unsafe designs. Read more

Introduction to Reactivity Management Roundtable

The Reactivity Management Roundtable (RMR) was founded in 2003 by a small group of process safety professionals meeting independently of both AIChE and CCPS. They met and reviewed the newly published Chemical Safety Board Reactive Hazard Investigation report that analyzed 167 serious chemical reactivity incidents over a 20-year period. A strong association was forged between AIChE and the RMR which soon lead to the adoption of the RMR as an AIChE CCPS subcommittee. The initial idea was to publish a traditional best practices guide book on the subject of chemical reactivity management that could reduce or eliminate reactivity incidents in the future. This presentation gives a brief overview. Read more

Is Your Dust Hazardous?

There are many materials we come across in our everyday lives that we assume are non-hazardous. Or at least we consider them to be for all intents and purposes. Many of these materials, when found in a fine dust form, are combustible and/or explosible. As the size of the individual pieces, or particles, decreases, the surface area to volume ratio increases. This contributes greatly to the explosive nature of a material. In an explosion, a large amount of energy is released over a very short period of time. Read more