Publications

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CEP Sizing Relief Systems for High Viscosity Two-Phase Flow

High viscosity two-phase (HVTP) flow occurs in many industrial scale reactors, particularly when runaway reactions (e.g. during polymerizations) are vented through an emergency relief system. The design of a relief system for two-phase discharge can be complicated, as it involves a fluid with a liquid-like density and a gas-like compressibility. This paper will help you qualify your design methods for high-viscosity two-phase relief systems against these simple benchmarks. Read more

Chemical Reactivity Data in PSM and RAGAGEP

Chemical reactivity is addressed throughout OSHA’s PSM Standard. A chemical reactivity hazard is a situation with the potential for an uncontrolled chemical reaction: Temperature increase, pressure increase, gas evolution. Chemical reactivity incidents can be initiated by various process upsets: Unintentional interaction, self-reactivity, accumulation of reactants, loss of cooling, catalyst mischarge, fire. The first step is understanding where a chemical reactivity hazard might exist. Read more

Combustible Dust: What You Should Know About NFPA 652

NFPA 652: Standard on the Fundamentals of Combustible Dust, 2016 Edition became effective on September 7, 2015. NFPA 652 is intended to provide the minimum requirements for managing fire, flash fire, and explosion hazards associated with combustible dusts. After establishing the minimum requirements for combustible dust in general, the standard then refers to other NFPA standards that may be required based on the specific dust you're handling in your plant. Read more

Conduct an Effective Incident Investigation

Readers who were listening to the radio or watching television on the morning of February 1, 2003, will remember the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia over Texas. Within an hour of losing contact with the Columbia, NASA's Mission Control declared a "contingency" to ensure that all mission data were preserved. This was the start of NASA's incident investigation procedure. Information that can reveal the root cause of an incident resides in many places - within the plant or process unit, and in control rooms, offices and witnesses' minds. This paper will review how to find the data and conduct effective Witness interviews. Read more

Conducting Process Hazard Analyses for Dust Handling Operations

Techniques for managing risk associated with dust explosions continue to evolve. The most important trend is the use of a formal process hazard analysis (PHA) to identify hazards and ways to reduce and/or eliminate them. Use this checklist-based technique to identify and assess potential dust hazards and to evaluate safeguards that can mitigate risks. Read more

Defining Dust Hazard Areas Can Help Streamline PHA's

As part of the 2013 update, NFPA 654 provides clarification on how to determine if a flash fire or explosion hazard exists. As part of the facility and systems design section, it is now required that a hazard assessment be conducted to determine if dust flash fire and dust explosion hazards exist (NFPA 654 Section 6.1). The real benefit to conducting these hazard assessments is in defining combustible dust hazard areas – both inside and external to process equipment. This paper presents a multi-step approach to conducting these hazard assessments, simplifying the process and defining the areas to evaluate during the process hazard analysis (PHA) to assure that valuable resources are spent appropriately. Read more